From time to time I have had friends, missionaries, and other members of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints ask me what I make of any supposed connection between Nephi, the opening author of the Book of Mormon, and the Nephilim of Genesis. The Nephilim, you will recall, are mentioned in Genesis 6 as the apparently unholy issue of the sons of God (בני אלהים) mating with human females.
When people began to multiply on the face of the ground, and daughters were born to them, the sons of God saw that they were fair; and they took wives for themselves of all that they chose. Then the LORD said, “My spirit shall not abide in mortals forever, for they are flesh; their days shall be one hundred twenty years.” The Nephilim were on the earth in those days—and also afterward—when the sons of God went in to the daughters of humans, who bore children to them. These were the heroes that were of old, warriors of renown. (NRSV Genesis 6:1–4)
The exact nature and origin of the Nephilim is obscure, but they appear to have been viewed anciently as quasi-mythical, primordial “giants” that roamed the land of Canaan (cf. Numbers 13:30–33). How did we get the impression they were “giants”? For English-speaking Latter-day Saints its because of how the KJV renders v. 4 of this passage: “There were giants in the earth in those days.” The word rendered “giant” in the KJV is the name for the Nephilim (נפלים). The King James translators, evidently unaware of what to do with this noun in this instance, punted by following the Septuagint, which renders נפלים as γίγαντες. It is possible that the translators of the Septuagint rendered נפלים so because of the influence of contemporary, popular Greek hero-myths involving larger-than-life demigods and the like.
The only problem, of course, is that the verbal root for נפלים has long been recognized as simply נפל (npl), meaning “to fall.” The Nephilim are “the fallen ones” who, having transgressed “the all-important boundary between the divine and the human” established by God at Creation, are the catalyst for the violence and evil that will result in God cleansing the earth with a flood. Even if we follow the translators of the Septuagint in rendering Nephilim as giants, “there is no archaeological evidence to support the view that the pre-Israelite inhabitants were giants; to attribute great size to them was probably a narrative way of expressing their military prowess.”
For Latter-day Saints, however, there are additional elements that entice them to make a (bizarrely misguided) connection between the beloved, righteous Book of Mormon prophet and the murderous, abominable offspring of fallen angels.
First there are the similarities between the two names. At first glance it seems obvious: Nephi/Nephilim. Below the (English) surface, however, the water quickly gets murky. For starters, the name Nephi almost certainly derives from the Egyptian nfr, not the Hebrew npl. The similarities between the two names in English are merely coincidental; less-technical conventions of transliterating the Masoretic voweling of נְפִילִים (nĕpîlîm) make it appear like it’s related to the name Nephi, but the appearance is illusory.
But what about Nephi’s self-description that he was “large in stature” (1 Nephi 2:16)? Surely, some Latter-day Saints have speculated, this must mean Nephi had some kind of connection with the Nephilim. Perhaps he was even a descendant of them! Immediately the objection comes to mind that Nephi calling himself “large in stature” is tremendously vague. What exactly does he mean by this? How large is “large” for Nephi? 5 feet? 6 feet? 12 feet? 20 feet? He never says.
Additionally, how literal was Nephi in this description? Notice that his self-description of being “large in stature” is contrasted with his “being exceedingly young,” and is also connected with his “having great desires to know of the mysteries of God” (v. 16). Was this a spiritual stature? Was this idiomatic for Nephi saying he had great courage in the face of obstacles, as my friend Ian Forsyth has suggested? How can we know? The text isn’t clear. To simply assume Nephi must have meant he was the teenage André Roussimoff of pre-exilic Judah is odd indeed. Are we really to imagine a hulking Nephi lumbering his way through the darkened streets of Jerusalem trying to pass himself off as Laban? Would a “giant” Nephi even have been able to fit into Laban’s clothes?
So if the etymological connection between Nephi and Nephilim doesn’t work, and if it must be assumed that “large in stature” = “giant” is the right reading of 1 Nephi 2:16, then what are we left with to make a plausible connection? Basically nothing. Personally, I think it’s time to put this speculation to rest.
: Adele Berlin and Marc Zvi Brettler, eds., The Jewish Study Bible (New York: Oxford University Press, 2004), 21.
: Richard J. Clifford, “giant,” in The HarperCollins Bible Dictionary, ed. Paul J. Achtemeier (San Francisco: HarperCollins, 1996), 376.
: John Gee, “A Note on the Name Nephi,” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 1, no. 1 (1992): 189-191; “Four Suggestions on the Origin of the Name Nephi,” in Pressing Forward with the Book of Mormon, ed. John W. Welch, and Melvin J. Thorne (Provo, Utah: FARMS, 1999), 1-5.
11 thoughts on “Nephi Among the Nephilim”
God grant me the cynicism to fight the things I cannot change, the passivity to accept the things I can, and enough alcohol-free beer and Mormon mocktails to endlessly debate the difference between the two.
What I'm saying is, it's impossible to put speculation rest.
Why are "the fallen ones" supposedly angels/gods fallen from heaven? Couldn't they actually be the first generations of Adam and Eve's children who were deceived and left the teachings of their parents? See Moses 5:1-13.
You seem to have missed some of the best aspects that are parallels between the Nephites and the Nephilim.
Nephite men were endeavoring to take the tender young daughters as captive wives, as per the chastening Jacob gave to them in chapter 2 of his book.
Nephilim also got in serious trouble because of taking wives according to their own choosing. This has the implication that they were also looking to and perhaps did take captive wives.
In both cases we have men who were endeavoring to use their status and positions of power and who were looking to get other men to enter into a pact to commit this egregious offense against the agency of the tender young and fair daughters of the people.
In both cases the Nephite as well as the Nephilim civilizations were doomed to destruction and it was for this very same reason. They abused the young girls in this manner and sealed their own fates in the process. The purpose of the flood at Noah's time was to annihilate the Nephilim, whreas the seed of Cain was determined to be spared this level of cursing. That should say something about the severity since they received a worse cursing than Cain received.
The conclusion to reach here is that in God's eyes it is an EXTREMELY bad idea to endeavor to take young fair tender captive wives under the color of religious facade.
There is a parallel here that I believe should not be dismissed.
What about the tens of thousands of burial mounds all over North America of warriors or chieftains of giant stature? From 7 to 12 feet tall. From California to New York. Indigenous peoples when asked about the giant bones said it was from a race of technologically advanced white skinned giants that had been when the Indians arrived. The Smithsonian destroyed all these bones but the records temain.
Yeah, I doubt that any of that is true.
Lazy! But it doesn’t matter if it’s true or not. But still your being lazy, and showing your lazyness.
I doubt , why is I because it sounds crazy so it can’t be true? Or is it because you did the research and you know the awnser ….. I’v lost interest. Do something productive next time like washing some dishes… waste my time with your comment.
Boo radly to you and all you crack pot time wasters
Thank you Carl. Just for your own study, wherever you can, replace the work Canaan with America.
For me I always think of Nephi as being very big for his age and to have been a very large baby when born, and that therefore his parents gave him a name associated with a giant race of people – not that he was descended from that race. I think the word was, or came to be one associated with being exceedingly large, no matter what ‘nephilim’ meant originally.
Nephi was “exceedingly young” at the beginning of the Book of Mormon narrative but he was, nevertheless, large in stature enabling him, even at that exceedingly young age, to wear the armor of a full grown man, namely Laban, and not be discovered to be a mere boy. I think ‘exceedingly young’ puts him possibly at about ten or eleven years of age at that time. He was also very strong, able to prevent Zoram from escaping simply by holding onto him. This is the explanation that occurs to me and it is not subject to change at this time by any manner of ‘learned’ argumentation.
Yes. I think there is a balancing of opposites, in Nephi’s description. Being exceedingly “young” yet “large” in stature. So he was “small” in age, but “large” in physique. Side-by-side, the two comparisons seem to want to emphasize just how big Nephi actually was. There may be something to it.
Excuse me, but the serious students of the bible and theology (think of Dr. Michael Heiser who mentors BYU professors) one does not understand the Sons of God being fallen angels in rebellion to God. They were assigned to come and help mankind, but instead, they gave mankind hidden knowledge and mated with daughters of men – Cain’s lineage and produced a race of giants called the nephilim. The book of Enoch, though it is not in the canon of scriptures, was well known and read by the Hebrews because the giants tormented the Israelites. So for your education, the reason for the flood was that the giants had corrupted the DNA of mankind. They also came after the flood. The reason God had Abraham’s descendants live in Egypt for over 400 years was to make a family into a nation who could defeat the giants and take possession of the promised land. The sin of Saul was that he refused to kill all the Amalekites. People think the God of the Old Testament was mean but the reality is that he was guarding the bloodline of Adam. Amalekites, Goliath, etc were from the Nephilim and their bloodline was corrupted. And if you really do any research at all, you can find newspapers articles with pictures of giants, etc. Nephi and Lehi came to this new land and they were well aware of the giants that their predecessors had to fight. So it is very surprising to me that there is no mention in the Book of Mormon of this, nor is there any mention that the Law of Moses, the sacrifices, could ONLY BE DONE BY LEVITES. Yet there is no mention that any Levites came to the promised land with Nephi and Lehi. God’s command is very specific – if anyone says God can do anything he likes – breaking his own law – he would cease to be God.
Martha, that is interesting information you’ve supplied. I am wanting to study the Book of Enoch for myself – it’s been sitting in my To-read folder and our Come Follow Me study schedule seems like the perfect time to actually open it up and dive in.