|Abra, Kadabra, Alakazam!|
Mormonism and magic. I actually agree with a lot of what Brandon has
highlighted in his blog post. I am also pleased that this is a question that
has been explored by numerous Mormon historians. I myself remember reading D.
Michael Quinn’s book Early Mormonism and the Magic World View for
the first time when I was in high school. At the time I thought
Quinn had made a pretty impressive case that the very foundations of Mormonism
rested on a “magical” worldview.
William Hamblin and John Gee. Hamblin and Gee heavily criticized
Quinn for a number of faults, not the least of them being Quinn’s apparently
highly idiosyncratic use of the term “magic.” This is something Gee
especially latched onto, arguing that Quinn used “an anachronistic and
misleading definition of the term magic that would allow him
to equivocate in his use of the term.” This is no
unimportant point, as how one defines the words “magic,”
“religion,” “spirituality,” “mysticism,” etc.,
will, in large part, determine how one assigns meaning to these various practices. As a missionary I would roll my eyes whenever I would hear someone
insist that they were “spiritual, but not religious,” as if there was
a meaningful distinction between the two adjectives. But now I realize that
what I thought was an oxymoron was in the mind of many a New Englander an
important distinction: being “religious” is bad, because being
“religious” means putting on a stuffy suit and going through the
motions at some boring church, but being “spiritual” is good, because
being “spiritual” means being sensitive to something higher than us.
What I’m getting at with this example is that it’s important to make sure
people are talking about the same thing when they use a certain vocabulary.
think a “magic world view” influenced early Mormonism? I actually am
somewhere in the middle in all of this. I think Quinn has persuasively shown
that Joseph and his family were certainly involved, at least to some degree, in
popular 19th century “folk magic.” I don’t think there’s much controversy on that point. I am not, however, entirely
persuaded by Quinn that a “magic world view” dominated early Mormonism.
I also think some of the examples Quinn brings up as evidence for his claims
are a pretty big stretch. I think Hamblin and Gee are correct that Quinn is
engaging in a (at times rather desperate) hunt for parallels
(“parallelomania,” as it’s often called).
Richard Bushman (whom Brandon actually quotes in his blog post), Brant Gardner,
and Mark Ashurst-McGee are probably right that Joseph’s early involvement with
“magic” acted as a sort of preparatory phase to teach him to be receptive
to the seemingly “magical” instruments God had prepared to be used in
the translation of the Book of Mormon. And why not? If God does
indeed speak to his children “in their weakness, after the manner of their
language, that they might come to understanding” (D&C 1:24), then
what’s so scandalous about God consecrating Joseph’s youthful exploits in magic
into genuine prophetic power?
“magical” seer stone in the translation of the Book of Mormon! Why
would he do that if God had already prepared the Nephite interpreters for him
to use in the translation? True enough, the historical evidence seems to
indicate that Joseph continued to use his seer stone in the translations
process. So what gives? To answer this, I turn to my friend Roger Nicholson and
The use of the seer stone should be of no
particular surprise or concern to any Latter-day Saint who accepts that Joseph
received a set of sacred stones [the Nephite interpreters] that were consecrated
for the purpose of receiving revelation and translation. After all, what
precisely is the difference between using one seer stone versus another? One
can assume that Joseph continued to use the Nephite interpreters, since they
were the instrument that was consecrated specifically for the purpose of
translation. However, it is entirely reasonable to assume that God could
consecrate any other instrument that He wished to serve that purpose as
Joseph used (seer stone, Nephite interpreters, etc.) but whether what he
accomplished was done by the gift and power of God. If Joseph was translating
today, I am convinced that God would have prepared a special iPhone with
celestial Google Translate on it for Joseph to use! That example is somewhat
tongue in cheek, but the point should be obvious: it’s not the “what”
but the “how.” Joseph translated, as he himself said, through the
gift and power of God. Whatever physical instruments were used are, I believe,
inconsequential. What matters is that God was behind it. If I may quote the
words of Elder Jules Winnfield to his companion Elder Vincent Vega,
“Whether or not what we experienced was an according-to-Hoyle miracle is
insignificant. What is significant is that I felt the touch of God. God got
involved.” That is the miracle of the translation of the Book of Mormon.
Not that Joseph used “magical” seer stones, but that God was
“magic”? Well, again, that depends on how you define the term. Do I
believe in a God who interacts with his children and the world around us, and
can therefore consecrate certain instruments, like rocks or staffs or arks of
covenants, with divine, or “magical,” properties? Do I wear
“magic underwear,” as many like to pejoratively call the temple
garments? Do I pray to a deity with the expectation that this deity will in
some way influence the world around me for my benefit? (“Heavenly Father,
please bless that we can all travel home in safety after this meeting.”)
Yes. If that is what you mean by “magic” (i.e. belief in a
“higher” or “divine” power), then I suppose I do believe in
“magic.” But the problem is that this is not what many people today
think of when they think of “magic.” Today “magic” has
taken on an entirely new, popular meaning that usually is relegated to the
realm of the purely fanciful. Think Harry Potter or The Elder Scrolls series.
|I’ll have you know that my adventures in Skyrim included me becoming the Arch-Mage of the College of Winterhold, thank you very much.|
“magic” becomes somewhat problematic, because what we may mean by
“magic” may or may not reflect what others mean by the word
“magic.” As Samuel Brown has recently explained,
Were the early Mormons magicians? Was Joseph
Smith the Wizard of Oz? Recent scholarship makes clear that framing the topic
like this begs the question in the pedantic sense of the phrase: the question
itself defines the answer. There is no real answer because it is not a
question; it is an assertion. When Mormons rejected accusations of magical or
occult ties, they were not dissembling. They were saying something very
important and true. Framing Mormonism as magic wears a patina of science, but
it invokes a troubled, methodologically flawed legacy.
“magic” to describe what I believe, or what Joseph Smith was involved
with in his production of the Book of Mormon. The meaning of the word has taken
on an entirely new life that would, I believe, only conjure the wrong idea in
the minds of modern people. I don’t want people to associate the actually
divine translation of the Book of Mormon with the antics of a fictional Harry
Potter zipping around on a broomstick by lumping them together with the term
term “magic” to score rhetorical points if they wish (“Oh,
you’re a theist? So you believe in a magical sky fairy?” or “Oh,
you’re a Mormon? So you believe that Joseph Smith used a magic rock to
translate the Book of Mormon? LOL! #dumbMormon”), but I don’t really care
about that. Call it whatever you want. What I care about is whether there is a
God who is not, as a Deist might imagine, sitting up in the clouds looking
proudly over his vast creations while at the same time refusing to get his
hands dirty in the affairs of mortality. What I care about is if God
consecrated Joseph’s “magical” seer stones to give him the divine
ability to translate an ancient Nephite record. (Spoiler alert: I believe he
did.) Call it “magic” if you wish, but just make sure you realize how
you’re using the term.
blog post I make my credibility disappear!
View, 2nd ed. (Salt Lake City: Signature Books, 1998).
Review of Books 12/2 (2000): 185–224; William J. Hamblin,
“That Old Black Magic,” FARMS Review of Books 12/2
emphasis in original.
York: Alfred A. Knopf, 2005), 48–52; Joseph Smith and the Beginnings of Mormonism (Urbana, Ill.: University of Illinois Press, 1984), 72–80, 184; Brant A. Gardner, The Gift and Power: Translating the Book
of Mormon (Salt Lake City: Greg Kofford Books, 2011), 3–134;
“Joseph the Seer—or Why Did He Translate With a Rock in His Hat?”
presented at the 2009 FAIR Conference, online here; Mark Ashurst-McGee, “A Pathway to
Prophethood: Joseph Smith as Rodsman, Village Seer, and Judeo-Christian
Prophet,” Master’s Thesis, Utah State University, 2000. See
also Mark Ashurst-McGee, “Moroni as Angel and as Treasure
Guardian,” FARMS Review 18/1 (2006): 34–100; Larry E.
Morris, “‘I Should Have an Eye Single to the Glory of God’: Joseph Smith’s
Account of the Angel and the Plates,” FARMS Review 17/1
(2005): 11–81; Kerry Muhlestein, “Seeking Divine Interaction: Joseph Smith’s Varying Searches for the Supernatural,” in No Weapon Shall Prosper: New Light on Sensitive Issues, ed. Robert L. Millet (Provo, UT: Religious Studies Center, Brigham Young University; Salt Lake City: Deseret Book, 2011), 77–91. Online here.
the Book: A Twenty-first Century Believer’s View of the Book of Mormon
Translation,” Interpreter: A Journal of Mormon Scripture 5
(2013): 187; online here.